This process reduces the level of residual stress on steel or iron by heating it uniformly to a suitable temperature, and then slowly cooling it to minimize the development of new stress. It has the effect of removing internal stresses generated by previous manufacturing processes such as machining or welding.

This process increases the hardness of a material by heating it above a critical temperature (known as an austenitizing temperature) and holding it there long enough for molecular transformation to occur. The material will develop a higher level of hardness if it is then cooled at a rate fast enough to lock in the microstructure transformation.

This method of hardening is accomplished by inducing electrical current to the material, which makes it more consistent than other methods of heating. Modern technology makes it possible to capture and record data for each item run through the system.

This term describes the process of heating, holding and cooling metallic materials. The process alters the material’s physical properties to reduce hardness and make it less brittle, improving its machinability and increasing dimensional stability.

This technique increases the hardness of iron or steel by introducing carbon-rich gases during the heating process. The objective is to create a surface that is more resistant to wear while maintaining the material’s toughness and strength of the core.

This process uses liquid nitrogen to cool materials to temperatures that can reach -300 degrees F. The process increases hardness and strength of various types of steel.

This process heats steel or iron to a temperature above its transformation range, followed by rapid cooling. Normalized steel has a higher strength due to the grain refinement that occurs at a molecular level, creating a more uniform piece of metal.

This surface-modification technique creates a wear-resistant layer by increasing the material’s surface hardness.

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